Marshall Islands History Sources No. 12
Treaty between Great Britain and Germany
relating to Freedom of Trade and Commerce

Declaration between the Governments of Great Britain and the German Empire relating to the Reciprocal Freedom of Trade and Commerce in the British and German Possessions and Protectorates in the Western Pacific, signed at Berlin, April 10, 1886.

The Government of Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Government of His Majesty the German Emperor, having resolved to
1.For the purpose of this Declaration the expression "Western Pacific" means that part of the Pacific Ocean lying between the 15th parallel of north latitude and the 30th parallel of south latitude, and between the 165th meridian of longitude west and the 130th meridian of longitude east of Greenwich.
2.The Government of Her Britannic Mqjesty and the Government of His Majesty the Emperor agree that the subjects of either State shall be free to resort to all the possessions of Protectorates of the other State in the Western Pacific, and to settle there, and to acquire and to hold all kinds of property, and to engage in all descriptions of trade and professions, and agricultural and industrial undertaldngs, subject to the same conditions and laws, and enjoying the same religious freedom, and the same protection and privileges, as the subjects of the Sovereign or Protecting State.
3.In all the British and German possessions and Protectorates in the Western Pacific the ships of both States shall in all respects reciprocally enjoy equal treatment as well as mostfavoured-nation treatment, and merchandise of whatever origin imported by the subjects of either State, under whatever flag, shall not be liable to any other or higher duties than that imported by the subjects of the other State or of any other third Power.
4.All disputed claims to land alleged to have been acquired by a British subject in a German possession or a German subject in a British possession or Protectorate, prior to the Proclamation of sovereignty or of Protectorate by either of the two Governments, shall be examined and decided by a Mixed Commission, to be nominated for that purpose by the two Governments.
The claim may, however, be settled by the local authority alone, if the claimant to the land makes formal application to that effect..
5.Both Governments engage not to establish any Penal Settlements in, or to transport convicts to, the Western Pacific.
6.In this Declaration the words "possessions and Protectorates in the Western Pacific" shall not include the Colonies which now have fully constituted Governments and Legislatures.
The present Declaration shall take effect from the date of its signature.

Declared and signed, in duplicate, at Berlin, this 10th day of April, 1886.

(LS.) Edward B. Malet
(LS.) Graf Bismarck

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